Macadamia trees (Macadamia spp) are native to southeastern Queensland and northeastern New South Wales, where they thrive in rainforests and other humid areas. The trees were brought to Hawaii as ornamental plants, eventually leading to the production of macadamia in Hawaii. While macadamia nuts originate and are cultivated in Australia, commercial production occurs primarily in Hawaii. Some countries in Latin America, Africa and Asia also grow macadamia nuts, while the trees are found in California and Florida for the continental United States.
Macadamia nuts are not picked from the tree, but are harvested when the nuts have fallen to the ground, a sign that they are fully ripe. A typical macadamia tree in an orchard can take seven years to start producing and will not reach full production until it is between 10 and 12 years old. Temperatures should not drop below -1 degrees Celsius or rise regularly above 35 degrees Celsius, as low temperatures increase the risk of damage, while high temperatures reduce vegetative growth, increase the premature fall of nuts, decrease nut growth and oil accumulation and can cause leaf burns. Walnuts soon became popular with residents of Hawaii, but they weren't planted commercially until 1921. It wasn't until the early 20th century that macadamia nuts began to be cultivated in Hawaii as a cash crop.
For example, in the district of Kona, on the Big Island of Hawaii, coffee is sometimes grown between macadamia trees. The macadamia tree is usually propagated by grafting and doesn't start producing commercial quantities of seeds until it's 7 to 10 years old, but once established, it can continue producing for more than 100 years. The shells are ground to produce organic waste for gardening, such as mulch in walnut tree orchards and for leaf litter for chickens that, after use, return to the orchard for use as fertilizer. Macadamia trees have lower nut yields than other nut trees, meaning it can take a while to start and maintain a positive cash flow.
There are no regulations or restrictions on the macadamia nut market, so prices are determined by market forces of supply and demand. Today, Mauna Loa Macadamia Nut Corporation is the largest manufacturer of macadamia nuts in the world. Quality control is essential in the garden to produce clusters of nuts and harvest them in a timely manner (and as cost-effectively as possible). Macadamia integrefolia produces nuts with smooth shells, and Macadamia tetraphylla has rough shell nuts.
A well-managed orchard with a distance between trees of 8 meters by 4 meters (or 312 trees per hectare) is expected to produce a maximum of 3.5 to 4 tons of nuts with shells per ha (12 to 13 kilograms per tree) at maturity, although poorly managed orchards or those in poor places may not reach these figures. And while harvesting walnuts by hand is the simplest step in the harvesting process, there are a few more things you need to do before you can get their health benefits in their delicious roasted form. The macadamia nut tree is a medium-sized, fast-growing evergreen tree with dense dark green foliage that comes from Australia. Inside that shell is a delicious sweet and buttery nut with a delicious and creamy texture that leaves no doubt as to why these nuts were considered a treasure.
Macadamia shells can be used as mulch, as fuel in the processing of macadamia nuts, as a planting medium for anthurium crops (flowering plants native to tropical America), for the manufacture of plastic, or as a substitute for sand for sandblasting. .